Multipotent hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into an ensemble of committed progenitor cells that produce the diverse blood cells essential for life. Physiological mechanisms governing hematopoiesis, and mechanistic aberrations underlying non-malignant and malignant hematologic disorders, are often very similar in mouse and man. Thus, mouse models provide powerful systems for unraveling mechanisms that control hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) function in their resident microenvironments in vivo. Ex vivo systems, involving the culture of HSPCs generated in vivo, allow one to dissociate microenvironment-based and cell intrinsic mechanisms, and therefore have considerable utility. Dissecting mechanisms controlling cellular proliferation and differentiation is facilitated by the use of primary cells, since mutations and chromosome aberrations in immortalized and cancer cell lines corrupt normal mechanisms. Primary erythroid precursor cells can be expanded or differentiated in culture to yield large numbers of progeny at discrete maturation stages. We described a robust method for isolation, culture, and analysis of primary mouse erythroid precursor cells and their progeny.