Distinct roles for PP1 and PP2A in phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. PP2A regulates the activities of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases

Yan Ying, Marc C. Mumby

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103 Scopus citations


The function of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) in controlling the G1 to S transition is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on serine and threonine residues. While the roles of cyclin-dependent kinases in phosphorylating and inactivating pRB have been characterized in detail, the roles of protein phosphatases in regulating the G1/S transition are not as well understood. We used cell-permeable inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A to assess the contributions of these phosphatases in regulating cyclin-dependent kinase activity and pRB phosphorylation. Treating asynchronously growing Balb/c 3T3 cells with PP2A-selective concentrations of either okadaic acid or calyculin A caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in pRB phosphorylation. Okadaic acid and calyculin A had no effect on pRB phosphatase activity even though PP2A was completely inhibited. The decrease in pRB phosphorylation correlated with inhibitor-induced suppression of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases including CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. The inhibitors also caused decreases in the levels of cyclin D2 and cyclin E, and induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21c(Cip1) and p27(Kip1). The decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase activities were not dependent on induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors since CDK inhibition still occurred in the presence of actinomycin D or cycloheximide. In contrast, selective inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 with tautomycin inhibited pRB phosphatase activity and maintained pRB in a highly phosphorylated state. The results show that protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2A, or 2A-like phosphatases, play distinct roles in regulating pRB function. Protein phosphatase 1 is associated with the direct dephosphorylation of pRB while protein phosphatase 2A is involved in pathways regulating G1 cyclin-dependent kinase activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31917-31924
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number45
StatePublished - Nov 5 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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