Does child temperament moderate the influence of parenting on adjustment?

Kathleen Cranley Gallagher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


Parental socialization and child temperament are modestly associated with child adjustment outcomes. Main-effects models have yielded valuable information, but fail to explicate mechanisms via which child adjustment occurs. A conditional model of influence is suggested, in which parenting effects on child adjustment are moderated by child temperament characteristics. Theoretical support for such a model is outlined, integrating bioecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998) and a corollary differential susceptibility hypothesis (Belsky, 1997). Empirical work compatible with the moderated model is reviewed, and research that more fully integrates the theoretical model and allows direct testing of the propositions is presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)623-643
Number of pages21
JournalDevelopmental Review
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Child adjustment
  • Differential susceptibility
  • Ecological systems theory
  • Moderator
  • Parenting
  • Temperament

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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