Does context matter? A multilevel analysis of neighborhood disadvantage and children's sleep health

Carlyn Graham, Eric N. Reither, Gabriele Ciciurkaite, Dipti A. Dev, Jamison Fargo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objectives: To determine how demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics are associated with bedtimes among US kindergarteners. Design: Parents reported bedtimes of their children as well as personal, household, and residential characteristics via interviews in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) Class of 1998–1999. The ECLS-K links individual households to US Census tracts. Setting: A random selection of 1,280 schools and surrounding communities in the US. Participants: A random selection of 16,936 kindergarteners and their parents. Measurements: The 2 outcomes were regular and latest weekday bedtimes of kindergarteners. Through a series of nested multilevel regression models, these outcomes were regressed on individual- and neighborhood-level variables, including race/ethnicity, sex, family type, household income, mother's educational attainment, neighborhood disorder, and several additional neighborhood characteristics. Results: Models showed significant (P < .05) bedtime disparities by race/ethnicity, sex, family income, and mother's educational attainment. Additionally, models tended to indicate that kindergarteners from disadvantaged neighborhoods experienced later bedtimes than children from more advantaged areas. Neighborhood characteristics accounted for a portion of racial/ethnic differences, suggesting that bedtime disparities are partly rooted in disparate environmental conditions. Conclusions: Reducing disparities in childhood sleep may require programs that target not only children and their parents, but also the communities in which they reside.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)578-586
Number of pages9
JournalSleep Health
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2020


  • Bedtime
  • Census tracts
  • Children
  • ECLS-K
  • Multilevel models
  • Neighborhoods
  • Sleep
  • United states

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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