Dopamine D1A directly interacts with otoferlin synaptic pathway proteins: Ca2+ and phosphorylation underlie an NSF-to-AP2mu1 molecular switch

Dakshnamurthy Selvakumar, Marian J. Drescher, Nathan A. Deckard, Neeliyath A. Ramakrishnan, Barbara J. Morley, Dennis G. Drescher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Dopamine receptors regulate exocytosis via protein-protein interactions (PPIs) as well as via adenylyl cyclase transduction pathways. Evidence has been obtained for PPIs in inner ear hair cells coupling D1A to soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-related proteins snapin, otoferlin, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), and adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 (AP2mu1), dependent on [Ca2+] and phosphorylation. Specifically, the carboxy terminus of dopamine D1A was found to directly bind t-SNARE-associated protein snapin in teleost and mammalian hair cell models by yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and pull-down assays, and snapin directly interacts with hair cell calcium-sensor otoferlin. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis, competitive pull-downs, and co-immunoprecipitation indicated that these interactions were promoted by Ca2+ and occur together. D1A was also found to separately interact with NSF, but with an inverse dependence on Ca2+. Evidence was obtained, for the first time, that otoferlin domains C2A, C2B, C2D, and C2F interact with NSF and AP2mu1, whereas C2C or C2E do not bind to either protein, representing binding characteristics consistent with respective inclusion or omission in individual C2 domains of the tyrosine motif YXXΦ. In competitive pull-down assays, as predicted by KD values from SPR (+Ca2+), C2F pulled down primarily NSF as opposed to AP2mu1. Phosphorylation of AP2mu1 gave rise to a reversal: an increase in binding by C2F to phosphorylated AP2mu1 was accompanied by a decrease in binding to NSF, consistent with a molecular switch for otoferlin from membrane fusion (NSF) to endocytosis (AP2mu1). An increase in phosphorylated AP2mu1 at the base of the cochlear inner hair cell was the observed response elicited by a dopamine D1A agonist, as predicted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)79-104
Number of pages26
JournalBiochemical Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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