Cellular iron homeostasis and mitochondrial iron homeostasis are interdependent. Mito-chondria must import iron to form iron–sulfur clusters and heme, and to incorporate these cofactors along with iron ions into mitochondrial proteins that support essential functions, including cellular respiration. In turn, mitochondria supply the cell with heme and enable the biogenesis of cytosolic and nuclear proteins containing iron–sulfur clusters. Impairment in cellular or mitochondrial iron homeostasis is deleterious and can result in numerous human diseases. Due to its reactivity, iron is stored and trafficked through the body, intracellularly, and within mitochondria via carefully orchestrated processes. Here, we focus on describing the processes of and components involved in mitochondrial iron trafficking and storage, as well as mitochondrial iron–sulfur cluster biogenesis and heme biosynthesis. Recent findings and the most pressing topics for future research are highlighted.
- Heme biosynthesis
- Iron homeostasis
- Iron trafficking
- Mitochondrial iron–sulfur clusters
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