The miniaturization of crystal resonators and filters toward the micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-structured scales demands improvement of nonlinear piezoelectricity theory and a better understanding of the nonlinear behavior of new crystal materials. The nonlinearities affect the quality factor and acoustic behavior of MEMS and nano-structured resonators and filters. Among these nonlinear effects, drive-level dependence (DLD), which describes the instability of the resonator frequency resulting from voltage level and/or power density, is a potentially significant problem for miniaturized resonators. Langasite, a promising new piezoelectric material, is of current interest for a variety of applications because of its good temperature behavior, good piezoelectric coupling, low acoustic loss, and high Q-factor. It has been recently used to make high-temperature MEMS. In this paper, we report experimental measurements of the DLD of langasite resonators with different resonator configurations (plano-plano, single bevel, and double bevel). The results show that the resonator configuration affects the DLD of the langasite resonator. The DLD measurement results for langasite are compared with literature values for quartz, langaniste, and langatate, and with additional new measurements for a GaPO4 resonator of type R-30 (¿11.1°rotated Y-cut). Uncertainty analysis for the measured drive-level sensitivity is performed as well.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control|
|State||Published - 2013|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering