Early mouse embryos produce and release factors with transforming growth factor activity

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33 Scopus citations


Previous studies have shown that extracts from mouse embryos at mid and late stages of development contain factors that exhibit transforming growth factor activity. The work reported here demonstrates that cultured mouse embryos at significantly earlier stages of development produce and release factors that exhibit the characteristic property of transforming growth factors. Specifically, the data demonstrate that embryos cultured from the blastocyst stage in serum-containing medium or in serum-free medium release factors that promote the anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney fibroblasts. It is shown that these factors are produced and released by cells derived from the inner cell mass and by trophoblasts. The precise developmental stage when production of these factors first begins has not been determined but our findings suggest that these factors are produced by cell types associated with early postimplatation embryos.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-536
Number of pages6
JournalIn Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1985


  • embryonal carcinoma cells
  • embryos
  • growth control
  • inner cell mass
  • transforming growth factors
  • trophoblasts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Plant Science


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