Objectives: To determine patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure rates, and indomethacin (INDO) toxicity rates in neonates dosed with INDO using an individualized pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) dosing approach. In addition, develop PD curves evaluating dose-response and concentration-response relationships for closure and renal toxicity, especially in select subgroups historically known as "poor responders" (<1000 g and ≥10 days postnatal age). Design: Prospective, cohort study. Setting: Level III neonatal intensive care unit. Subjects: One hundred thirty-nine patients receiving 151 courses of INDO for PDA closure were evaluated. Interventions: Patients initially received 0.25 mg/kg of INDO, followed immediately by 1 mg/kg of furosemide. INDO concentrations were obtained 2 hrs and 8 hrs after the dose and were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Individualized PK parameters were calculated with subsequent INDO dosing based on the individualized PK variables to increase trough serum concentrations by 0.3-0.5 mg/L. Measurements and Main Results: Ductal closure was successful in 127 patients (91%). Renal toxicity occurred in 21 (15%) patients and was temporary and reversible. No significant differences in response rates based on treatment weight or postnatal age were observed. PD curves were similar for neonates <1000 g vs. ≥1000 g. PD curves were also similar for neonates with postnatal age <10 days vs. ≥10 days. Statistically significant differences were noted between neonates categorized for postnatal age <10 days vs. ≥ 10 days in total days of therapy (1.8 vs. 2.3 days), total number of doses required to close PDA (3.5 vs. 5.6 doses), critical INDO dose (0.9 vs. 1.4 mg/kg), critical INDO concentration (1.9 vs. 1.4 mg/L), and critical dose/critical concentration ratio (0.52 vs. 2.2). Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that the poor PDA closure rates with INDO for neonates >10 days postnatal age are the result of pharmacokinetic differences only and that weight does not impact response rates. Individualized pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic dosing of INDO continues to achieve higher closure rate than current dosing standards. Patients historically known as poor responders significantly benefit from this dosing approach.
- Critical concentration
- Patent ductus arteriosus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine