Effect of motor-assisted elliptical training speed and body weight support on center of pressure movement variability

Farahnaz Fallahtafti, Chase M. Pfeifer, Thad W. Buster, Judith M. Burnfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: A motor-assisted elliptical trainer is being used clinically to help individuals with physical disabilities regain and/or retain walking ability and cardiorespiratory fitness. Unknown is how the device's training parameters can be used to optimize movement variability and regularity. This study examined the effect of motor-assisted elliptical training speed as well as body weight support (BWS) on center of pressure (CoP) movement variability and regularity during training. Methods: CoP was recorded using in-shoe pressure insoles as participants motor-assisted elliptical trained at three speeds (20, 40 and 60 cycles per minute) each performed at four BWS levels (0 %, 20 %, 40 %, and 60 %). Separate two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (3 × 4) evaluated impact of training speed and BWS on linear variability (standard deviation) and non-linear regularity (sample entropy) of CoP excursion (anterior-posterior, medial-lateral) for 10 dominant limb strides. Findings: Training speed and BWS did not significantly affect the linear variability of CoP in the anterior-posterior or medial-lateral directions. However, sample entropy in both directions revealed the main effect of training speed (p < 0.0001), and a main effect of BWS was observed in the medial-lateral direction (p = 0.004). Faster training speeds and greater levels of BWS resulted in more irregular CoP patterns. Interpretation: The finding that speed and BWS can be used to manipulate CoP movement variability when using a motor-assisted elliptical has significant clinical implications for promoting/restoring walking capacity. Further research is required to determine the impact of motor-assisted elliptical speed and BWS manipulations on functional recovery of walking in individuals who have experienced a neurologic injury or illness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-143
Number of pages6
JournalGait and Posture
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • Center of pressure
  • Gait
  • Physical rehabilitation
  • Regularity
  • Variability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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