Effective Reduction of Cement Content in Pavement Concrete Mixtures Based on Theoretical and Experimental Particle Packing Methods

Miras Mamirov, Jiong Hu, Yong Rak Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The effective reduction of cement content in pavement concrete without compromising its fresh, mechanical, and durability properties can lead to more economical and sustainable pavement engineering. Because a reduction in cement content in concrete can be achieved by improving the particle packing of aggregates, this study attempted to improve a practical mix design procedure based on both theoretical and experimental particle packing methods. In this study, optimum aggregate blends were first identified using the Modified Toufar Model, which indicated good correlation with the experimental packing results based on a combined void content test. The Modified Box Test was then used to evaluate the fresh concrete performance and to justify the effectiveness of cement reduction. The results indicated that cement content could be reduced by up to 56 kg/m3 from the reference mix with the optimum aggregate gradation. The results from hardened concrete tests, such as compressive strength, flexural strength, and resistivity, confirmed that concrete properties were not compromised by the reduced cement content. Freeze-Thaw resistance was improved with up to an 11% increase in the relative dynamic modulus at 300 freeze-Thaw cycles. The optimum mixes also demonstrated reduced shrinkages, with a 12%-20% reduced strain at 180 days of free shrinkage and a delayed cracking age based on the restrained shrinkage test. Based on the laboratory test results, an improved mixture design procedure aided by the particle packing degree and the minimum excess paste-To-Aggregates volume ratio is presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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