Effectiveness of a pharmacist-physician collaborative program to manage influenza-like illness

Michael E. Klepser, Donald G. Klepser, Allison M. Dering-Anderson, Jacqueline A. Morse, Jaclyn K. Smith, Stephanie A. Klepser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of collaborative physicianecommunity pharmacist programs to treat influenza-like illness (ILI) with respect to clinical outcomes and health care utilization. Design: Prospective multicenter cohort study. Setting: Fifty-five pharmacies in Michigan, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Patients: Adult patients presenting to the pharmacy with ILI during the 2013-14 influenza season (October 1, 2013 to May 30, 2014). Intervention: Pharmacists screened adult patients presenting with ILI, completed a brief physical assessment, performed a point-of-care rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT), and provided appropriate referral or treatment per an established collaborative practice agreement (CPA) with a licensed prescriber. Pharmacists followed-up with patients 24 to 48 hours after the encounter to assess patient status and possible need for further intervention. Main outcome measures: Number of patients screened, tested, and treated for influenza. Results: Of the 121 patients screened, 45 (37%) were excluded and referred to their primary care provider or an urgent care facility for management. Of the 75 patients (62%) eligible for participation, 8 (11%) had a positive RIDT and were managed according to the CPA. Of the patients tested, 34.6% had no primary care physician and 38.7% visited the pharmacy outside of normal office hours. Only 3% of patients reported feeling worse at follow-up. Conclusion: This study describes a physician-pharmacist collaborative model for treating ILI. Using an evidence-based CPA, pharmacists were able to provide timely treatment to patients with and without influenza.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14-21
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (nursing)
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology


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