Effects of a proposed challenge on effort sense and cardiorespiratory responses during exercise

Edmund O. Acevedo, David A. Dzewaltowski, Karla A. Kubitz, Robert R. Kraemer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose: Highly trained endurance athletes train and race at relatively high intensities and are often confronted with challenges throughout a running event. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the anticipation of a proposed challenge on effort sense, heart rate (HR), ventilation ([dotV(E)), and ventilatory equivalent V(E)/VO2), a measure of ventilatory efficiency. Methods: Highly trained endurance athletes (VO(2max) = 68.46 ± 1.47 mL · kg-1 · min-1) ran two sessions at approximately 75% of VO(2max) for 35 min in a control condition and a proposed challenge condition. During the control condition, the subjects ran on a treadmill while simultaneously viewing a video depicting a runner exercising at 75% of VO(2max) and were told the run would continue at a speed that elicited 75% of VO(2max). During the proposed challenge condition, subjects completed the same exercise protocol but viewed a video of a struggling runner and were told that the treadmill speed would be increased to 'an extremely difficult' 95% of VO(2max) matching the intensity of the runner on the video. However, after data assessment at 17 min, subjects were told that the treadmill was malfunctioning and the treadmill speed could not be altered. The same intensity was maintained in both conditions. RPE, HR, V(E), and V(E)/VO2 were assessed during the treadmill runs at 10, 17, 25, and 35 min. Results: The effects of the manipulation were represented by a significant increase in state anxiety immediately following the video proposing the 95% challenge. RPE, HR, and V(E) increased similarly under both conditions, while V(E)/VO2 did not change. Conclusion: These findings suggest that for highly trained endurance athletes, anticipation of proposed challenge during running does not influence cardiorespiratory responses; thus these athletes demonstrate a physiologically toughened' response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1460-1465
Number of pages6
JournalMedicine and science in sports and exercise
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes



ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of a proposed challenge on effort sense and cardiorespiratory responses during exercise'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this