Effects of acute administration of ketorolac on mammalian vestibular sensory evoked potentials

G. Christopher Gaines, Timothy A. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) ketorolac is a candidate for use as a supplemental analgesic during major surgery in anesthetized rodents. The use of ketorolac during surgery is believed to reduce the anesthetic dose required to achieve and maintain an adequate surgical plane, thus improving the physiologic condition and survival of animals during long experimental procedures. Ketorolac has reported side effects that include dizziness, ear pain, hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo in humans, but ketorolac has not been reported to affect the vestibular system in animals. To investigate this possibility, we evaluated the acute effects of ketorolac on vestibular compound action potentials in C57BL/6 mice. Linear vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEP) were recorded during the administration of ketorolac at doses 3 to 14 times the effective analgesic dose. VsEP results for ketorolac were compared with those from a control group maintained under anesthesia for the same period. Ketorolac did not significantly affect the temporal profiles of response latencies and amplitudes or the rate of change in response measures over time between controls and ketorolac-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that ketorolac can be used as an analgesic to supplement anesthesia in mice without concerns of modifying the amplitudes and latencies of the linear VsEP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-62
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • C plasma concentration at time t
  • CL, plasma clearance rate
  • D dose at time t (that is, cumulative dose)
  • DB SPL, decibels, sound pressure level (reference 20μPa)
  • ECG, Electrocardiographic
  • RM MANOVA, repeated-measures multivariate ANOVA
  • V, volume of distribution
  • VsEP, vestibular sensory evoked potentials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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