Older adults exhibit reductions in push-off power that are often attributed to deficits in plantarflexor force-generating capacity. However, growing evidence suggests that the foot may also contribute to push-off power during walking. Thus, age-related changes in foot structure and function may contribute to altered foot mechanics and ultimately reduced push-off power. The purpose of this paper was to quantify age-related differences in foot mechanical work during walking across a range of speeds and at a single fixed speed with varied demands for push-off power. 9 young and 10 older adults walked at 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 m/s, and at 1.2 m/s with an aiding or impeding horizontal pulling force equal to 5% BW. We calculated foot work in Visual3D using a unified deformable foot model, accounting for contributions of structures distal to the hindfoot's center-of-mass. Older adults walked while performing less positive foot work and more negative net foot work (p < 0.05). Further, we found that the effect of age on mechanical work performed by the foot and the ankle–foot complex increased with increased locomotor demand (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that during walking, age-related differences in foot mechanics may contribute to reduced push-off intensity via greater energy loss from distal foot structures, particularly during walking tasks with a greater demand for foot power generation. These findings are the first step in understanding the role of the foot in push-off power deficits in older adults and may serve as a roadmap for developing future low-cost mobility interventions.
- Joint work
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine