Effects of ammonia and lactate on hybridoma growth, metabolism, and antibody production

Sadettin S. Ozturk, Mark R. Riley, Bernhard O. Palsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

301 Scopus citations


The influence of ammonia and lactate on cell growth, metabolic, and antibody production rates was investigated for murine hybridoma cell line 163.4G5.3 during batch culture. The specific growth rate was reduced by one‐half in the presence of an initial ammonia concentration of 4 mM. Increasing ammonia levels accelerated glucose and glutamine consumption, decreased ammonia yield from glutamine, and increased alanine yield from glutamine. Although the amount of antibody produced decreased with increasing ammonia concentration, the specific antibody productivity remained relatively constant around a value of 0.22 pg/cell‐h. The specific growth rate was reduced by one‐half at an initial lactate concentration of 55 mM. Although specific glucose and glutamine uptake rates were increased at high lacatate concentration, they showed a decrease after making corrections for medium osmolarity. The yield coefficient of lactate from glucose decreased at high lactate concentrations. A similar decrease was observed for the ammonia yield coefficient from glutamine. At elevated lactate concentrations, specific antibody productivities increased, possibly due to the increase in medium osmolarity. The specific oxygen uptake rate was insensitive to ammonia and lactate concentrations. Addition of ammonia and lactate increased the calculated metabolic energy production of the cells. At high ammonia and lactate, the contribution of glycolysis to total energy production increased. Decreasing external pH and increasing ammonia concentrations caused cytoplasmic acidification. Effect of lactate on intracellular pH was insignificant, whereas increasing osmolarity caused cytoplasmic alkalinization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)418-431
Number of pages14
JournalBiotechnology and Bioengineering
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 20 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • ammonia
  • antibody production
  • hybridoma growth
  • lactate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology


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