Effects of processing method and solute interactions on pepsin digestibility of cooked proso millet flour

Paridhi Gulati, Luis Sabillón, Devin J. Rose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Previous studies have reported a substantial decline in in vitro digestibility of proso millet protein upon cooking. In this study, several processing techniques and cooking solutions were tested with the objective of preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility. Proso millet flour was subjected to the following processing techniques: high pressure processing (200 and 600 MPa for 5 and 20 min); germination (96 h); fermentation (48 h); roasting (dry heating); autoclaving (121 °C, 3 h), and treatment with transglutaminase (160 mg/g protein, 37 °C, 2 h). To study the interaction of millet proteins with solutes, millet flour was heated with sucrose (3–7 M); NaCl (2–6 M); and CaCl2 (0.5–3 M). All processing treatments failed to prevent the loss in pepsin digestibility except germination and treatment with transglutaminase, which resulted in 23 and 39% increases in digestibility upon cooking, respectively, when compared with unprocessed cooked flours. Heating in concentrated solutions of sucrose and NaCl were effective in preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility, an effect that was attributed to a reduction in water activity (aw). CaCl2 was also successful in preventing the loss in digestibility but its action was similar to chaotrops like urea. Thus, a combination of enzymatic modification and cooking of millet flour with either naturally low aw substances or edible sources of chaotropic ions may be useful in processing of proso millet for development of novel foods without loss in digestibility. However, more research is required to determine optimum processing conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)583-588
Number of pages6
JournalFood Research International
StatePublished - Jul 2018


  • Chaotrope
  • Germination
  • High pressure processing
  • Sourdough
  • Transglutaminase
  • Water activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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