Background The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that flow patterns in the right ventricle are abnormal in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). High-resolution echocardiographic contrast particle imaging velocimetry was used to investigate rotation intensity and kinetic energy dissipation of right ventricular (RV) flow in patients with TOF compared with normal controls.
Methods Forty-one subjects (16 with repaired TOF and varying degrees of RV dilation and 25 normal controls) underwent prospective contrast imaging using the lipid-encapsulated microbubble (Definity) on Sequoia systems. A mechanical index of 0.4, three-beat high-frame rate (>60 Hz) captures, and harmonic frequencies were used. Rotation intensity and kinetic energy dissipation of flow in the right and left ventricles were studied (Hyperflow). Ventricular volumes and ejection fractions in all subjects were derived from same-day cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR).
Results Measurable planar maps were obtained for the left ventricle in 14 patients and the right ventricle in 10 patients among those with TOF and for the left ventricle in 23 controls and the right ventricle in 21 controls. Compared with controls, the TOF group had higher RV indexed end-diastolic volumes (117.8 ± 25.5 vs 88 ± 15.4 mL/m2, P <.001) and lower RV ejection fractions (44.6 ± 3.6% vs 51.8 ± 3.6%, P <.001). Steady-streaming (heartbeat-averaged) flow rotation intensities were higher in patients with TOF for the left ventricle (0.4 ± 0.13 vs 0.29 ± 0.08, P =.012) and the right ventricle (0.53 ± 0.15 vs 0.26 ± 0.12, P <.001), whereas kinetic energy dissipation in TOF ventricles was lower (for the left ventricle, 0.51 ± 0.29 vs 1.52 ± 0.69, P <.001; for the right ventricle, 0.4 ± 0.24 vs 1.65 ± 0.91, P <.001).
Conclusions It is feasible to characterize RV and left ventricular flow parameters and planar maps in adolescents and adults with repaired TOF using echocardiographic contrast particle imaging velocimetry. Intraventricular flow patterns in the abnormal and/or enlarged right ventricle in patients with TOF differ from those in normal young adults. The rotation intensity and energy dissipation trends in this investigation suggest that they may be quantitative markers of RV and left ventricular compliance abnormalities in patients with repaired TOF. This hypothesis merits further investigation.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2014|
- Cardiac blood flow
- Congenital heart surgery
- Tetralogy of
- Two-dimensional echocardiography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine