Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Blood Flow and Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma: A Review

Pooja Patel, Alon Harris, Carol Toris, Leslie Tobe, Matthew Lang, Aditya Belamkar, Adrienne Ng, Alice C. Verticchio Vercellin, Sunu Mathew, Brent Siesky

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and visual field loss. Some speculate that sex plays a role in the risk of developing POAG and that the physiological differences between men and women may be attributed to the variable effects of sex hormones on intraocular pressure, ocular blood flow, and/or neuroprotection. Estrogen, in the form of premenopausal status, pregnancy, and postmenopausal hormone therapy is associated with an increase in ocular blood flow, decrease in intraocular pressure and neuroprotective properties. The vasodilation caused by estrogen and its effects on aqueous humor outflow may contribute. In contrast, although testosterone may have known effects in the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, there is no consensus as to its effects in ocular health or POAG. With a better understanding of sex hormones in POAG, sex hormone-derived preventative and therapeutic considerations in disease management may provide for improved sex-specific patient care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1037-1041
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Glaucoma
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018


  • estrogen
  • glaucoma
  • intraocular pressure
  • neuroprotection
  • ocular blood flow
  • testosterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of Sex Hormones on Ocular Blood Flow and Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-angle Glaucoma: A Review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this