The replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in mononuclear phagocytes (blood monocytes, tissue macrophages, and dendritic cells) is an important feature of HIV-1 pathogenesis. Although most primary HIV-1 isolates are able to productively infect monocytes, some reports suggest that rates of viral DNA synthesis and virus replication are reduced in HIV-1-infected monocytes as compared to infected T cells. In this study we compare kinetics of viral DNA synthesis in CD4+ T cells and monocytes following HIV-1 infection. Our results indicate that reverse transcription of viral nucleic acids following infection of monocytes occurs at rates equal to or greater than that observed following infection of T cells. These studies reveal no postentry restrictions to HIV-1 replication following infection in monocytes. Moreover, the results support the notion that both monocytes and CD4+ T cells are equally permissive for virus replication in infected individuals.
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