Elucidating the role of extracellular vesicles in liver injury induced by HIV

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Liver disease is known as one of the leading co-morbidities in HIV infection, with 18% of non-AIDS-related mortality. There is constant crosstalk between liver parenchymal (hepatocytes) and non-parenchymal cells (macrophages, hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells), and extracellular vesicles (EVs) are one of the most important ways of cell-to-cell communication. Areas covered: We briefly cover the role of EVs in liver disease as well as what is known about the role of small EVs, exosomes, in HIV-induced liver disease potentiated by alcohol as one of the second hits. We also touch large EVs, apoptotic bodies (ABs), in HIV-induced liver injury, the mechanisms of their formation and potentiation by second hits, and their role in the progression of liver disease. Expert Opinion/Commentary: Liver cells are an important source of EVs, which may provide the connection between different organs via secretion into the circulating blood (exosomes) or serve for the communication between the cells within the organ (ABs). Understanding the role of liver EVs in HIV infection and the involvement of second hits in EV generation would provide a new angle for the analysis of HIV-related liver disease pathogenesis and progression to end-stage liver disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)701-708
Number of pages8
JournalExpert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2023


  • HIV
  • alcohol
  • apoptotic bodies
  • exosomes
  • extracellular vesicles
  • liver

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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