PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite improvement in short-term outcomes after kidney transplantation, long-term outcomes remain suboptimal. Conventional biomarkers are limited in their ability to reliably identify early immunologic and nonimmunologic injury. Novel biomarkers are needed for noninvasive diagnosis of subclinical injury, prediction of response to treatment, and personalization of the care of kidney transplant recipients.
RECENT FINDINGS: Recent biotechnological advances have led to the discovery of promising molecular biomarker candidates. However, translating potential biomarkers from bench to clinic is challenging, and many potential biomarkers are abandoned prior to clinical implementation. Despite these challenges, several promising urine, blood, and tissue novel molecular biomarkers have emerged and are approaching incorporation into clinical practice.
SUMMARY: This article highlights the challenges in adopting biomarker-driven posttransplant management and reviews several promising emerging novel biomarkers that are approaching clinical implementation.