Emotional expression during attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders treatment: Initial assessment of treatment effects

Chris J. Kratochvil, D. Faries, B. Vaughan, A. Perwien, J. Busner, K. Saylor, S. Kaplan, C. Buermeyer, R. Swindle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Objective: The purpose of this research was to provide an initial examination of the effects of atomoxetine and stimulants on emotional expression using a newly developed scale for assessing emotional expression in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivily disorder (ADHD). Method: The parent-rated Expression and Emotion Scale for Children (EESC) was collected during two studies. During a cross-sectional validation study, the EESC was completed to assess the child's current treatment and retrospectively for previous medication. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of atomoxetine, the EESC was collected at baseline and endpoint. Results: In the validation study, no statistically significant differences in EESC scores were found between groups taking atomoxetine (n = 74) and stimulants (n = 105). Patients who switched from a stimulant to atomoxetine (n = 40) had greater improvement in emotional expression than those switched to another stimulant (n = 21) (p = 0.008). In the clinical trial, no difference in rates of worsening of emotional expression were observed (atomoxetine 8.3%, placebo 12.3%; p = 0.440). Conclusion: No treatment differences in emotional expression were observed based on current medications. However, stimulant patients needing to switch medications may have greater improvements in emotional expression by switching to atomoxetine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)51-62
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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