Encapsulation of Manganese Porphyrin in Chondroitin Sulfate-A Microparticles for Long Term Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging

Fei San Lee, Kayla E. Ney, Alexandria N. Richardson, Rebecca E. Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca A. Wachs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: Oxidative stress due to excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) is related to many chronic illnesses including degenerative disc disease and osteoarthritis. MnTnBuOE-2-PyP5+ (BuOE), a manganese porphyrin analog, is a synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetic that scavenges ROS and has established good treatment efficacy at preventing radiation-induced oxidative damage in healthy cells. BuOE has not been studied in degenerative disc disease applications and only few studies have loaded BuOE into drug delivery systems. The goal of this work is to engineer BuOE microparticles (MPs) as an injectable therapeutic for long-term ROS scavenging. Methods: Methacrylated chondroitin sulfate-A MPs (vehicle) and BuOE MPs were synthesized via water-in-oil polymerization and the size, surface morphology, encapsulation efficiency and release profile were characterized. To assess long term ROS scavenging of BuOE MPs, superoxide scavenging activity was evaluated over an 84-day time course. In vitro cytocompatibility and cellular uptake were assessed on human intervertebral disc cells. Results: BuOE MPs were successfully encapsulated in MACS-A MPs and exhibited a slow-release profile over 84 days. BuOE maintained high potency in superoxide scavenging after encapsulation and after 84 days of incubation at 37 °C as compared to naked BuOE. Vehicle and BuOE MPs (100 µg/mL) were non-cytotoxic on nucleus pulposus cells and MPs up to 23 µm were endocytosed. Conclusions: BuOE MPs can be successfully fabricated and maintain potent superoxide scavenging capabilities up to 84-days. In vitro assessment reveals the vehicle and BuOE MPs are not cytotoxic and can be taken up by cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)391-407
Number of pages17
JournalCellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Antioxidant
  • Degenerative disc disease
  • Drug delivery
  • Oxidative stress
  • SOD mimic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modeling and Simulation
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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