Traumatic intracranial arterial injuries represent uncommon complications of both closed-head injury and penetrating head trauma. These injuries include arterial dissections, pseudoaneurysms, and fistulas, both direct and indirect. Although these lesions may be identified while still asymptomatic, they usually present in a delayed fashion with intracranial hemorrhage, focal cerebral ischemia, or, occasionally, severe epistaxis. Endovascular therapy has assumed a major role in the management of this diverse group of lesions. Embolization of pseudoaneurysms with balloons or detachable coils, the use of embolic particles for small arterial injuries, and large vessel occlusion with detachable balloons represent current treatment strategies that have evolved over the past three decades. Angioplasty and stent deployment may have a future role to play in the management of arterial dissection. Principles of neurologic critical care that minimize secondary brain injury are essential adjuncts in the management of these patients before, during, and after endovascular treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine