Riprap and concrete stilling basins are often built at culvert outlets to keep high-energy flows from scouring the streambed. Two simple alternatives to large basins are examined: a horizontal apron with an end weir and a drop structure with an end weir. The two designs are intended to reduce the flow energy at the outlet by inducing a hydraulic jump within the culvert barrel without the aid of tailwater. This research examines the jump geometry and the effectiveness of each jump type and proposes a design procedure for practicing engineers. The design procedure is applicable to culverts with approach Froude numbers from 2.6 to 6.0. Both designs are effective in reducing outlet velocity 0.7 to 8.5 ft/s (0.21 to 2.59 m/s), momentum 10% to 48%, and energy 6% to 71%. The design layouts allow easy access for maintenance activities.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering