Molecular engineering has contributed immensely to the clinical success of antibodies in recent years. The modular structure of antibodies has permitted their modification in numerous ways, to meet various clinical requirements. With the help of antibody engineering, it has been possible to modify the molecular size, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, binding affinity, specificity and effector function of antibodies. In addition, fusion proteins of antibodies with various proteins and peptides have yielded targeted biological modifiers, toxins and imaging agents. This review focuses on the recent trends in antibody engineering for improving their clinical utility.
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