Enhanced HIV replication in macrophage colony-stimulating factor-treated monocytes

D. C. Kalter, M. Nakamura, J. A. Turpin, L. M. Baca, D. L. Hoover, C. Dieffenbach, P. Ralph, H. E. Gendelman, M. S. Meltzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

118 Scopus citations


Monocytes cultured 7 to 10 days in recombinant human macrophage CSF (MCSF) were >400-fold more susceptible to HIV infection than an equal number of cells cultured in medium alone. Levels of reverse transcriptase activity and p24 Ag in culture fluids of monocytes treated with MCSF 1 wk before and continuously after HIV infection were significantly greater than those of control cells cultured without MCSF. HIV-induced cytopathic effects in the MCSF-treated cultures also increased in both frequency and extent. At any given viral inoculum, the frequency of HIV-infected cells, the level of HIV mRNA/infected cell, and the level of proviral DNA/infected culture in MCSF-treated monocyte cultures were dramatically greater than those in control cultures. These differences were directly related to MCSF concentration to a maximum between 750 and 1000 U/ml MCSF, and were evident at all time points examined through 5 wk. None of the preceding effects was observed when MCSF was added at the time of or 1 wk after HIV infection. These data suggest that the predominant effect of MCSF for control of HIV infection is on the monocyte itself, not the virus. If these in vitro observations extend to the HIV-infected patient, then the variable levels of MCSF in tissue or blood may determine both the susceptibility of macrophages to virus infection and the extent of virus replication in infected cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)298-306
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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