Eosinophilic pulmonary syndrome is an uncommon problem in SCT recipients that can mimic an infectious process. We report the occurrence of eosinophilic pulmonary syndrome in three patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and postulate that this entity is part of the clinicopathologic spectrum of pulmonary GVHD. In all three cases, active chronic GVHD of the skin preceded or coincided with the development of pulmonary involvement. Other common features included peripheral blood eosinophilia, diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and lung biopsies showing pronounced infiltrates of eosinophils involving the small bronchioles. All patients responded promptly to systemic steroid therapy, with improvement of their pulmonary symptoms and the resolution of peripheral blood eosinophilia. Clinicians should be aware that eosinophilic pulmonary syndrome can occur following HSCT, may be associated with other manifestations of chronic GVHD, and generally responds well to corticosteroid therapy.
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