Evaluation of Bioactive Properties of Lipophilic Fractions of Edible and Non-Edible Parts of Nasturtium officinale (Watercress) in a Model of Human Malignant Melanoma Cells

Sotiris Kyriakou, Venetia Tragkola, Heba Alghol, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Tom Amery, Kyle Stewart, Paul G. Winyard, Dimitrios T. Trafalis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I. Panayiotidis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Watercress is an enriched source of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), among other phyto-chemicals, with an antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to (i) chemically characterize and (ii) biologically evaluate the profile of the main health-promoting compounds contained in edible (i.e., mixture of leaves and lateral buds) and non-edible (i.e., stems) parts of watercress in an in vitro model of malignant melanoma consisting of human malignant melanoma (A375), non-melanoma (A431) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. The extraction of the main constituents of watercress was performed by subjecting the freeze-dried edible and non-edible samples through different extraction protocols, whereas their concentration was obtained utilizing analytical methodologies. In addition, cell viability was evaluated by the Alamar Blue assay, whereas levels of oxidative stress and apoptosis were determined by commercially available kits. The edible watercress sample contained a higher amount of various nutrients and phytochemicals in the hexane fraction compared to the non-edible one, as evidenced by the presence of PEITC, phenolics, flavonoids, pigments, ascorbic acid, etc. The cytotoxicity potential of the edible watercress sample in the hexane fraction was considerably higher than the non-edible one in A375 cells, whereas A431 and HaCaT cells appeared to be either more resistant or minimally affected, respectively. Finally, levels of oxidative stress and apoptotic induction were increased in both watercress samples, but the magnitude of the induction was much higher in the edible than the non-edible watercress samples. Herein, we provide further evidence document-ing the potential development of watercress extracts (including watercress waste by-products) as promising anti-cancer agent(s) against malignant melanoma cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number141
JournalPharmaceuticals
Volume15
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Antioxidants
  • Flavonoids
  • Malignant melanoma
  • Phenethyl isothiocyanate
  • Phenols
  • Pigments
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Watercress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery

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