Evaluation of effects of chitosan in preventing hemorrhagic cystitis in rats induced by cyclophosphamide

T. Okamura, T. Masui, M. K. St. John, S. M. Cohen, R. J. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common problem following cyclophosphamide or radiation therapy. Chitosan has been shown to be an effective hemostatic agent and promoter of wound healing in animal experiments. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of intravesical chitosan in an animal model of cyclophosphamide cystitis. Hemorrhagic cystitis was induced in female E 344 rats by intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide, 100 mg/kg. Chitosan solution (0.3 ml) was instilled intravesically on day 1 (Group 1), on days 1, 3, and 5 (Group 2), or 1 hour after the administration of cyclophosphamide (Group 3). The rats in group 4 were treated with chitosan diluent on day 1 after cyclophosphamide, and the rats in group 5 received intravesical chitosan without cyclophosphamide. Sequential examination revealed decreased mortality and lower incidences of severe bladder bleeding, necrosis and inflammation in Group 3. Treatment delayed until after the appearance of the cystitis, especially repeated treatments, appeared to make the cyclophosphamide-induced changes worse. Used within 1 hour of cyclophosphamide administration, before the cystitis develops, chitosan seemed to have the possibility to inhibit the appearance of hemorrhagic cystitis. In addition to the changes in the bladder, severe changes occurred in the kidneys secondary to cyclophosphamide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)289-296
Number of pages8
JournalActa Urologica Japonica
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • bladder instillation
  • chitosan
  • cyclophosphamide
  • hemorrhagic cystitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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