Evaluation of handle position - Comparison of psychophysical force/endurance and biomechanical criteria

Ram R. Bishu, Wang Wei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Handle locations and geometry play an important role in container design. The objective of this study was threefold: (a) to determine the effectiveness of the handles in a lifting and carrying task, (b) to determine if force endurance relationship curves could be used as criterion for comparing the handle positions, and (c) to compare the handle positions through biomechanical modelling. The first two objectives were evaluated through a pair of laboratory experiments, while the University of Michigan 'Two-dimensional static biomechanical model' was modified for the third objective. The results indicate that symmetric handle positions 2/2, and 8/8 are the best. Among the asymmetric handle positions 3/7 appeared to be superior to 6/8, although the latter resulted in the longest endurance. The results are discussed in light of recommendations to the designer of container.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)221-234
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Industrial Ergonomics
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1992


  • MMH injuries
  • box handles
  • container design
  • lifting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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