Evaluation of ingredient effects on extruded starch-based foams using a supersaturated split-plot design

Siew Yoong Lee, Kent M. Eskridge, Woon Yuen Koh, Milford A. Hanna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


The aim of this study was to use a supersaturated split-plot design to identify the significant effects of ten ingredients, each at two levels, and two levels of screw speed on selected properties of starch-based packaging foams. Supersaturated designs are special types of fractional factorial designs that allow for evaluating many factors with a minimal amount of experimental material. Rice starch foams were prepared with a twin-screw extruder. The ingredients used were α-cellulose (fiber), potato starch, poly(lactic acid), polystyrene, glycerol, sodium chloride, talc, sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and moisture content of the feed. The properties studied were radial expansion ratio, unit density, bulk spring index, bulk compressibility and Young's modulus. The results showed that the ingredients identified to have significant effects on the properties were the high levels of talc, citric acid, moisture content and the low level of fiber. Low screw speed was found to have greater effect on the properties of the foams than did the high screw speed. It was concluded that the supersaturated split-plot design was successful in identifying the significant ingredients and screw speed that should be used to further investigate the extrusion of starch-based packaging foams.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)427-436
Number of pages10
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Mar 2009


  • Packaging
  • Properties
  • Screw speed
  • Split-plot design
  • Starch-based foam
  • Supersaturated design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science


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