Evaluations of the peroxidative susceptibilities of cod liver oils by a1H NMR analysis strategy: Peroxidative resistivity of a natural collagenous and biogenic amine-rich fermented product

Benita C. Percival, Angela Wann, Richard Zbasnik, Vicki Schlegel, Mark Edgar, Jie Zhang, Gilbert Ampem, Philippe Wilson, Adam Le Gresley, Declan Naughton, Martin Grootveld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

High-resolution1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was employed to molecularly screen the lipid, lipid oxidation product (LOP), and antioxidant compositions of four natural (unrefined) cod liver oil (CLO) products. Products 1–3 were non-fermented CLOs, whilst Product 4 was isolated from pre-fermented cod livers. Supporting analytical data that were acquired included biogenic amine, flavanone, tannin, phenolic antioxidant, α-tocopherol, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) determinations by recommended HPLC, LC/MS/MS, or spectrophotometric methods. SDS-PAGE, HPLC, and1H NMR analyses investigated and determined collagenous antioxidants and their molecular mass ranges.1H NMR analysis of aldehydic LOPs was employed to explore the susceptibilities/resistivities of each CLO product to peroxidation that is induced by thermal stressing episodes (TSEs) at 180°C, or following prolonged (42 day) storage episodes at 4 and 23 °C. Product 4 displayed extremely high ORAC values, which were much greater than those of Products 1–3, and that were predominantly ascribable to significant levels of peroxidation-blocking and/or aldehyde-consuming collagenous polypeptides/peptides and ammoniacal agents therein. Significantly lower levels of toxic aldehydes were generated in the pre-fermented Product 4 during exposure to TSEs, or the above long-term storage episodes. These results confirmed the enhanced peroxidative resistivity of a fermented, antioxidant-fortified natural CLO product over those of non-fermented unrefined products. Product 4: Green Pasture Blue Ice™ Fermented Cod Liver Oil.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number753
JournalNutrients
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2020

Keywords

  • Aldehyde toxins
  • Antioxidants
  • Biogenic amines
  • Cod liver oil
  • Collagen-derived antioxidants
  • Fermented foods
  • Flavanones
  • H NMR analysis
  • Lipid oxidation products
  • NMR-based Thermo-Oxidation Resistivity Assay (TORA)
  • Peroxidative susceptibility/resistivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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