Protein tyrosine O-sulfation is considered as the most common type of post-translational tyrosine modification in nature and plays important roles in extracellular biomolecular interactions. To facilitate the mapping, biological study, and medicinal application of this type of post-translational modification, we seek to evolve a small protein scaffold that recognizes sulfotyrosine with high affinity. We focused our efforts on the engineering of the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain, which represents the largest class of known phosphotyrosine-recognition domain in nature and has a highly evolvable binding pocket. By using phage display, we successfully engineered the SH2 domain to recognize sulfotyrosine with high affinity. The best mutant, SH2-60.1, displayed more than 1700 fold higher sulfotyrosine-binding affinity than that of the wild-type SH2 domain. We also demonstrated that the evolved SH2 domain mutants could be used to detect sulfoprotein levels on the cell surface. These evolved SH2 domain mutants can be potentially applied to the study of protein tyrosine O-sulfation with proper experimental designs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine