Examination of discrepancies between subjective and objective memory with latent factors of the geriatric depression scale

Wonjeong Haavisto, Julie Blaskewicz Boron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether multiple constructs of depressive symptoms explained discrepancies between subjective (SM) and objective memory (OM) in older adulthood. Method: A sub-sample (Range: 65–98 years, N = 606) of the 2000 Wave Panel 3 of the Long Beach Longitudinal Study was used to explore underlying latent factors within the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results: Four GDS factors were identified (Dysphoria, Vigor/Withdrawal, Cognitive Concerns, and Agitation); the factor solution was tested in a confirmatory factor analysis. Mechanisms of the GDS factors on SM and OM were tested by using structural equation modeling. Dysphoria negatively predicted OM, but not SM, suggesting that people who scored high in Dysphoria might not sense their memory failures although they obviously performed poorly in OM. Cognitive concerns negatively predicted SM, but not OM, suggesting that cognitive concerns were not influential for OM, but negatively affected one's evaluation of SM. Conclusion: The study results have clinical implications since such relationships can be concealed while assessing depressive symptoms as a single GDS factor. Thus, the patterns of the GDS factors, SM, and OM derived from this study can be very useful for clinicians who conduct assessments on depressive symptoms and memory failures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)475-484
Number of pages10
JournalAging and Mental Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 3 2019


  • Depressive symptoms
  • factor analysis
  • objective memory
  • structural equation modeling
  • subjective memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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