9 Scopus citations


This study determined the muscle effort and fatigue of the upper extremity while performing fundamental surgical skills training tasks. Ten novices performed three tasks (precision cutting, needle passing, and peg transfer) using either a virtual simulator or a laparoscopic box-trainer. Their electromyography (EMG) activities in both proximal and distal parts of upper extremity were measured. Significantly more muscle effort were required to complete tasks with the box-trainer, whereas similar muscle fatigue levels between tasks were found in both training environments. These EMG results demonstrated how the virtual trainer could provide meaningful physiological value to the surgeon training in laparoscopic surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationStudies in Health Technology and Informatics
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 2013


  • electromyography
  • surgical training
  • training box
  • upper extremity
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Health Informatics
  • Health Information Management


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