Exogenous progestogen and estrogen implicated in birth defects

J. J. Nora, A. H. Nora, J. Blu, J. Ingram, A. Fountain, M. Peterson, R. H. Lortscher, W. J. Kimberling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A five-year study of the possible teratogenicity of exogenous female sex hormones included three case-control studies and one cohort study. The first case-control study disclosed an estimated relative risk of 8.41 and a highly significant difference in maternal hormonal exposure (P < .001) between controls and infants with three major anomalies of the VACTERL group (V, vertebral; A, anal; C, cardiac; T, tracheal; E, esophageal; R, renal; and L, limb). Relative risk (RR) estimates of 5.58 (P=.017) and 3.35 (P < .001) were found in two case-control studies involving maternal hormonal exposure and patients with congenital heart lesions without other malformations. A controlled, single-blind prospective study disclosed an excess of patients with major malformations (RR = 2.75), congenital heart anomalies (RR = 6), and neurological and neural tube disorders preponderant in the presence of a precipitously declining exposure rate during a three-year period in our referral area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)837-843
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Medical Association
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1978
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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