Exogenous Progestogen and Estrogen Implicated in Birth Defects

James J. Nora, Audrey H. Nora, Janet Blu, Joy Ingram, Agnes Fountain, Marilyn Peterson, Randall H. Lortscher, William J. Kimberling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Scopus citations


A five-year study of the possible teratogenicity of exogenous female sex hormones included three case-control studies and one cohort study. The first case-control study disclosed an estimated relative risk of 8.41 and a highly significant difference in maternal hormonal exposure (P<.001) between controls and infants with three major anomalies of the VACTERL group (V, vertebral; A, anal; C, cardiac; T, tracheal; E, esophageal; R, renal; and L, limb). Relative risk (RR) estimates of 5.58 (P=.017) and 3.35 (P<.001) were found in two case-control studies involving maternal hormonal exposure and patients with congenital heart lesions without other malformations. A controlled, single-blind prospective study disclosed an excess of patients with major malformations (RR=2.75), congenital heart anomalies (RR=6), and neurological and neural tube disorders preponderant in the presence of a precipitously declining exposure rate during a three-year period in our referral area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)837-843
Number of pages7
JournalJAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 1978

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Exogenous Progestogen and Estrogen Implicated in Birth Defects'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Nora, J. J., Nora, A. H., Blu, J., Ingram, J., Fountain, A., Peterson, M., Lortscher, R. H., & Kimberling, W. J. (1978). Exogenous Progestogen and Estrogen Implicated in Birth Defects. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 240(9), 837-843. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1978.03290090031012