Exploring Bitslicing Architectures for Enabling FHE-Assisted Machine Learning

Soumik Sinha, Sayandeep Saha, Manaar Alam, Varun Agarwal, Ayantika Chatterjee, Anoop Mishra, Deepak Khazanchi, Debdeep Mukhopadhyay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Homomorphic encryption (HE) is the ultimate tool for performing secure computations even in untrusted environments. Application of HE for deep learning (DL) inference is an active area of research, given the fact that DL models are often deployed in untrusted environments (e.g., third-party servers) yet inferring on private data. However, existing HE libraries [somewhat (SWHE), leveled (LHE) or fully homomorphic (FHE)] suffer from extensive computational and memory overhead. Few performance optimized high-speed homomorphic libraries are either suffering from certain approximation issues leading to decryption errors or proven to be insecure according to recent published attacks. In this article, we propose architectural tricks to achieve performance speedup for encrypted DL inference developed with exact HE schemes without any approximation or decryption error in homomorphic computations. The main idea is to apply quantization and suitable data packing in the form of bitslicing to reduce the costly noise handling operation, Bootstrapping while achieving a functionally correct and highly parallel DL pipeline with a moderate memory footprint. Experimental evaluation on the MNIST dataset shows a significant ( $37\times$ ) speedup over the nonbitsliced versions of the same architecture. Low memory bandwidths (700 MB) of our design pipelines further highlight their promise toward scaling over larger gamut of Edge-AI analytics use cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4004-4015
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022


  • Accelerators
  • bitslicing
  • encrypted analytics
  • homomorphic encryption (HE)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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