Here, we have attempted to address the timing of EV and virion release from virally infected cells. Uninfected (CEM), HIV-1-infected (J1.1), and human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1)-infected (HUT102) cells were synchronized in G0. Viral latency was reversed by increasing gene expression with the addition of serum-rich media and inducers. Supernatants and cell pellets were collected post-induction at different timepoints and assayed for extracellular vesicle (EV) and autophagy markers; and for viral proteins and RNAs. Tetraspanins and autophagy-related proteins were found to be differentially secreted in HIV-1- and HTLV-1-infected cells when compared with uninfected controls. HIV-1 proteins were present at 6 h and their production increased up to 24 h. HTLV-1 proteins peaked at 6 h and plateaued. HIV-1 and HTLV-1 RNA production correlated with viral protein expression. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) showed increase of EV concentration over time in both uninfected and infected samples. Finally, the HIV-1 supernatant from the 6-h samples was found not to be infectious; however, the virus from the 24-h samples was successfully rescued and infectious. Overall, our data indicate that EV release may occur prior to viral release from infected cells, thereby implicating a potentially significant effect of EVs on uninfected recipient cells prior to subsequent viral infection and spread.
- extracellular vesicles
ASJC Scopus subject areas