Facilitators and barriers to adolescent participation in a TB clinical trial

J. M. Mangan, K. N.C. Hedges, M. M. Salerno, K. Tatum, B. Bouwkamp, M. W. Frick, L. McKenna, G. Muzanyi, M. Engle, J. Coetzee, J. Yvetot, M. Elskamp, D. Lamunu, M. E.Theunissen Tizora, D. Namutamba, R. E. Chaisson, S. Swindells, P. Nahid, S. E. Dorman, E. Kurbatova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The inclusion of adolescents in TB drug trials is essential for the development of safe, child-friendly regimens for the prevention and treatment of TB. TB Trials Consortium Study 31/AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5349 (S31/A5349) enrolled adolescents as young as 12 years old. We assessed investigator and coordinator described facilitators and barriers to adolescent recruitment, enrollment, and retention. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with six investigators from sites that enrolled adolescent participants and six investigators from non-enrolling sites. Additionally, two focus groups were conducted with study coordinators from enrolling sites and two focus groups with non-enrolling sites. Discussions were transcribed, analyzed, summarized, and summaries were reviewed by Community Research Advisors Group members and research group representatives for content validity. RESULTS: Investigators and coordinators attributed the successful enrollment of adolescents to the establishment and cultivation of external partnerships, flexibility to accommodate adolescents’ schedules, staff engagement, recruitment from multiple locations, dedicated recruitment staff working onsite to access potential participants, creation of youth-friendly environments, and effective communications. Non-enrolling sites were mainly hindered by regulations. Suggestions for improvement in future trials focused on study planning and site preparations. CONCLUSION: Proactive partnerships and collaboration with institutions serving adolescents helped identify and reduce barriers to their inclusion in this trial.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)243-248
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2024


  • adolescents
  • trials
  • tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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