Factors associated with viral suppression among cisgender women living with human immunodeficiency virus in the United States: An integrative review

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Women account for 23% of new human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses in the United States, yet remain understudied. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and consequent viral suppression are keys to preventing human immunodeficiency virus transmission, reducing risk of drug resistance, and improving health outcomes. Objectives: This review identified and synthesized peer-reviewed studies in the United States describing factors associated with viral suppression among cisgender women living with human immunodeficiency virus. Methods: We searched five databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and PsycINFO, and reported the findings using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Eligible studies included: (1) peer-reviewed English-language articles published since 2010; (2) includes only cisgender women; (3) participants were at least 18 years of age; (4) reported metrics on viral loads; and (5) conducted in the United States. Results: Fourteen studies in total were reviewed. Eight studies had adult women living with human immunodeficiency virus, four recruited only pregnant women, and two included only racial minority women. The most commonly reported factors negatively associated with viral suppression were substance use (n = 4), followed by availability of health insurance, financial constraint, complexity of human immunodeficiency virus treatment regimen (n = 3), and intimate partner violence (n = 2). Other factors were depression, race, and age. In addition, all four studies that included only pregnant women reported early human immunodeficiency virus care engagement as a significant predictor of low viral loads pre- and post-partum. Conclusion: Substance use, financial constraint, lack of health insurance, human immunodeficiency virus treatment regimen type, intimate partner violence, and late human immunodeficiency virus care pre–post pregnancy were the most common factors negatively associated with viral suppression. There is a paucity of data on viral suppression factors related to transgender and rural populations. More human immunodeficiency virus research is needed to explore factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus treatment outcomes in transgender women and cisgender women in rural U.S. regions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalWomen's Health
Volume18
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Keywords

  • HIV
  • United States
  • adherence
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • viral suppression
  • women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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