Factors contributing to the failure to use condoms among students in Zambia

Lazarous Mbulo, Ian M. Newman, Duane F. Shell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low among both drinkers and non-drinkers. The results also showed that drinkers had higher positive alcohol-sexual expectations than non-drinkers. Furthermore, drinkers had lower negative alcohol-sexual expectations than non-drinkers. A logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol-sexual expectancies, gender, education, and religion were not significant predictors of condom use among sexually-active students. However, among drinkers, education and positive alcohol-sexual expectancies were significant predictors. Education, positive alcohol-sexual expectations and religion were also significant predictors of condom use among students who engaged in sexual activities after drinking. We conclude that drinking behavior, alcohol-sexual expectations, educational level and religion are associated with lower use of condom.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-58
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Alcohol and Drug Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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