Father's Presence and Young Children's Behavioral and Cognitive Adjustment

Lisa J. Crockett, David J. Eggebeen, Alan J. Hawkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


The present study examined the impact of the biological father on young children's cognitive and behavioral adjustment. Using data from the 1986 Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the relationship between father's coresidence in the household over the first 3 years of a child's life and children's adjustment was assessed for 1,688 four-to six-year-old children. Two dimensions of father-presence were considered, reflecting the timing of the father's entry into the household and the duration of his presence during the child's first 3 years of life. Within-group analyses of variance indicated significant effects of father-presence for White and Hispanic children and for children born to teenage and older mothers. All of these initial effects disappeared, however, once controls for child characteristics, maternal characteristics, and family resources were introduced in multiple regression models. These findings suggest that the father-effects operated through family characteristics and did not represent unique effects of fathering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)355-377
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Family Issues
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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