FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Lemongrass oil, chamomile oils, citronella oil and related flavoring ingredients

Thomas J. Rosol, Samuel M. Cohen, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Shoji Fukushima, Nigel J. Gooderham, F. Peter Guengerich, Stephen S. Hecht, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens, Jeanne M. Davidsen, Christie L. Harman, Shannen Kelly, Danarubini Ramanan, Sean V. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a program for the re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavor ingredients. This publication, eleventh in the series, evaluates the safety of NFCs characterized by primary alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acid, ester and lactone constituents derived from terpenoid biosynthetic pathways and/or lipid metabolism. The scientific-based evaluation procedure published in 2005 and updated in 2018 that relies on a complete constituent characterization of the NFC and organization of the constituents into congeneric groups. The safety of the NFCs is evaluated using the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept in addition to data on estimated intake, metabolism and toxicology of members of the congeneric groups and for the NFC under evaluation. The scope of the safety evaluation does not include added use in dietary supplements or any products other than food. Twenty-three NFCs, derived from the Hibiscus, Melissa, Ricinus, Anthemis, Matricaria, Cymbopogon, Saussurea, Spartium, Pelargonium, Levisticum, Rosa, Santalum, Viola, Cryptocarya and Litsea genera were affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under their conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients based on an evaluation of each NFC and the constituents and congeneric groups therein.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number113697
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Absolutes and extracts
  • Acid and ester constituents
  • Essential oils
  • GRAS
  • Natural Flavor Complex
  • Primary alcohol
  • Safety evaluation
  • aldehyde

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology


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