FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Mint, buchu, dill and caraway derived flavoring ingredients

Samuel M. Cohen, Gerhard Eisenbrand, Shoji Fukushima, Nigel J. Gooderham, F. Peter Guengerich, Stephen S. Hecht, Ivonne M.C.M. Rietjens, Maria Bastaki, Jeanne M. Davidsen, Christie L. Harman, Margaret M. McGowen, Sean V. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavor ingredients. NFC flavor materials include a variety of essential oils and botanical extracts. The re-evaluation of NFCs is conducted based on a constituent-based procedure outlined in 2005 and updated in 2018 that evaluates the safety of NFCs for their intended use as flavor ingredients. This procedure is applied in the re-evaluation of the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of NFCs with constituent profiles that are dominated by alicyclic ketones such as menthone and carvone, secondary alcohols such as menthol and carveol, and related compounds. The FEMA Expert Panel affirmed the GRAS status of Peppermint Oil (FEMA 2848), Spearmint Oil (FEMA 3032), Spearmint Extract (FEMA 3031), Cornmint Oil (FEMA 4219), Erospicata Oil (FEMA 4777), Curly Mint Oil (FEMA 4778), Pennyroyal Oil (FEMA 2839), Buchu Leaves Oil (FEMA 2169), Caraway Oil (FEMA 2238) and Dill Oil (FEMA 2383) and determined FEMA GRAS status for Buchu Leaves Extract (FEMA 4923), Peppermint Oil, Terpeneless (FEMA 4924) and Spearmint Oil, Terpeneless (FEMA 4925).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110870
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
StatePublished - Jan 2020


  • Dill and caraway essential oils
  • GRAS
  • Mint essential oils
  • Natural flavor complex
  • Pulegone
  • Safety evaluation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology


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