Field experiences with eXtreme Programming: Developing an emergency response system

Ann Fruhling, Gert Jan De Vreede

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


eXtreme Programming (XP) is a well-known agile software development method. While a number of reports have been published on explaining the XP methodology and the perceived benefits when using XP for system development in recent years, less is known about the actual operationalization of the XP principles. This paper presents an action research study reporting on the experiences of implementing the XP methodology in a development project for a Web-based, distributed information system. The goal of this research was to increase the understanding of how to effectively operationalize XP techniques so that the system being developed catered to today's fast-paced technological environment by allowing the developers to respond quickly to innovative and changing requirements. Overall, the research indicates that most of the XP principles could be effectively implemented; however, three of the principles required modification (i.e., testing, pair programming, customer collocation). Several benefits resulted from the usage of XP. The rapid prototyping enabled information technology developers and users to clarify system requirements, communicate openly, quickly build rapport, and create an interface that was easy to use and learn. Further, the research found that where the technology was new or foreign to the development team and the user, the XP process was flexible enough to support several iterations of technology and produce prototypes in a timely manner. Pair programming appeared to work effectively and offer value; however, it is not always practically feasible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)39-68
Number of pages30
JournalJournal of Management Information Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 2006


  • Action research
  • Agile methodologies
  • EXtreme programming
  • Emergency response
  • Pair programming
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Software testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Management Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Information Systems and Management


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