Chronic sinusitis is an often-used term in both lay and medical circumstances. In children, it has significant but largely undefined healthcare costs. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in children has well demarcated time periods and symptoms, although the actual pathway from normal sinus to CRS is not well understood. There is reasonable consensus as to the standards for diagnosis, the selection of a first-round antibiotic, and length of treatment. However, no recent prospective studies of antibiotics are available. Areas of continued speculation include the following: the microbiome of pediatric CRS, the best use of standard imaging, alternative antibiotic selection, ancillary therapy, and treatment of refractory CRS. In addition, older adolescents can present with a more adult-oriented CRS with or without polyps, suggesting a broader spectrum of disease than is commonly recognized. An accounting of the accepted elements of pediatric rhinosinusitis, as well as areas for future research, is emphasized in this review and, where appropriate, suggestions for potential investigations are offered.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine