Three transducers were developed for evaluating lip, tongue, and jaw muscle force control in individuals with motor speech disorders. The rationale for the development of these transducers was based upon the hypothesized need for clinical assessment of the individual motor subsystems of the speech production mechanism. To provide an indication of the utility of these devices, exemplary force control data from adults with Parkinson's disease and spastic cerebral palsy are provided. Observations of differential force control impairment in the labial, lingual, and mandibular subsystems of these dysarthric individuals supported the rationale for this development. Observations were made also concerning the utility of these nonspeech measures for predicting speech motor dysfunction.
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